The following Table explains some of the less obvious words and terms used in the Saint Bernard standard and in the commentary.

Barrel chest
This chest is circular in cross section and interferes with the proper articulation of the front legs and shoulder blades.
Bitchy dog
A male specimen that exhibits feminine structure, comportment and/or substance. There is little acceptance of this animal since they generally produce offspring lacking in power and substance.
Black face
A facial marking in which the dark color of the mask extends down both sides of the muzzle and the blaze becomes a very narrow strip or is missing altogether. This usually results in a very stern expression.
Blaze
A rather broad and fairly extensive white marking starting at the back of the skull and running down the forehead into the muzzle.
Bridge of the muzzle
The upper surface of the muzzle between the skull and nose.
Brindle
A color pattern produced by the presence of darker hairs forming vertical bands and giving somewhat of a striped effect on a background of tan, brown, or yellow.
Burr
The package of inner surface ridges, cartilage and leather thickness that gives the base of the external ear the propensity to stand away from the head.
Cheek bones
The bony protuberance below the eye; the zygomatic arch.
Chest well arched
Such a chest has ribs that spring well away from the spine at their attachment to the spine, but become narrower and flatter towards the brisket to provide operating space for the front legs and shoulder blades.
Cowhocks
An anatomical abnormality in which the hocks are closer together than are the rear feet, either when standing or when in motion. (see figure 1 in Table of Figures)
Dewclaws
The first (inner) claw or digit on the pastern, not reaching the ground. On the front pastern the dewclaw is the first metatarsal bone and associated phalanges. On the rear pastern the dewclaw is the first metatarsal bone and associated phalanges. Rear dewclaws, which are often referred to as wolf’s claws or spurs are allowed to be removed by both the standard and AKC regulations.
Dewlap
The pendulous folds of skin under the chin, throat and neck.
Doggy bitch
A female specimen that exhibits masculine structure, comportment, and/or substance. There is more acceptance of this animal under the supposition that she will be able to produce more massive and impressive offspring.
Even bite
An arrangement of the teeth and mouth in which the lower incisor teeth line-up in exact opposition to the upper incisor teeth when the mouth is closed.
Extended mask
A facial marking in which the dark color of the mask extends down towards the nose on one or both sides of the muzzle.
“f”
In the original German version of the standard, they used a letter from the German alphabet that has been translated into a lower case letter “f”. The German character looks like a rather flattened “S”, and that is what was intended here. That is, the intent is to describe a tail in repose that curves downward in a flat shallow curve from its insertion into the rump and then half-way down the tail reverses the direction of curvature to curve upward, again in a flat shallow curve.

Flag
Long hair on the tail that hangs loosely or limply, such as on the tail of an Irish Setter. Usually such tails fail to have the round bush-like character of a typical Saint Bernard tail.
Flap or ear flap
The portion of the external ear that hangs from the burr. (see the definition of burr.)
Flews of the upper jaw
The relatively thin lips attached to the upper jaw.
Flews of the lower jaw
The relatively thin lips attached to the lower jaw.
Half mask
A facial marking in which the island of dark color surrounds only one eye and is totally missing on the other side.
Haunches
The muscular development around the haunch bone, which is often called the hip bone. That is, the most forward region of the croup or the pelvic area immediately behind the loin.
Haw
A pouching or sagging of the lower eyelid or eyelids resulting in the exposure of the conjunctival (inner) lining of the eyelid.
Hindquarters
The part of the dog behind the loin including the haunch, rump, croup and rear limps, but in many usages the tail is excluded.
Hocks
The joints in the hind limbs, located between the lower thighs and the rear pasterns.
Hospice ear
An ear that is partially or completely white; often with ticking in the white area.
Lachrymal glands
The tear-producing glands situated at the inner corners of the eyes, one on each side.
Layback of shoulder blade
The angle that the shoulder blade deviates from the horizontal. (see figure 4 in Table of Figures)
Loin section
In normal context the loin is that area of the dog between the end of the ribs and the start of the pelvis. In context of this usage in the Saint Bernard standard, the reference is to the large, prominent, well-developed complex of muscles and connective tissue on each side of the spine.
Long axis
An axis is a theoretical line in space about which something rotates – in this case the dog’s head. There are three axes for the head: the horizontal axis about which the head rotates when nodding yes, a vertical axis about which the head rotates when shaking the head no, and the horizontal axis about which the head rotates when the dog rolls (cocks) its head. This third horizontal axis, running from the back of the skull to the nose, is what is meant by the term long axis.
Mantle
Body markings that involve the darker color distributed over the back and sides of the dog similar to a blanket. The color may extend to some extent down the legs and over the shoulders and neck.
Mask
Dark shadings on the head that form a mask-like pattern around the eyes.
Monk’s cap
In specimens with a wide blaze that extends between the eyes, over the skull and back to the white collar, one may occasionally find a round island of dark color between the ears. This skullcap-like marking is known as the monk’s cap. Holy spot is another synonym.
Muschel
A German word that refers to the burr (see definition of ear burr).
Nape
The back of the neck.
Noble
Of admirable dignity with an aristocratic expression, imposing appearance and a stately magnificent composure.
Noseband
A band of white on the muzzle between the nose and mask, especially on the flews, top of muzzle and lower surface of the jaw.
Occiput
The eminence located at the back of the skull which forms the forward part of the indentation between the head and neck. The protuberance of the occipital bone of the skull.
Out at elbows
An anatomical abnormality in which the elbows fail to be in close proximity to the chest; either when standing or when in motion. (see figure 3 in the Table of Figures)
Overshot bite
An arrangement of the teeth and mouth in which the lower incisor teeth are positioned behind the upper incisor teeth and there is a gap between the two sets of incisors when the mouth is closed. This is usually thought of as a lower jaw that failed to grow long enough.
Pasterns
In this context the reference is to the front pasterns which are the metacarpus or the region between the carpus (wrist joint) and the digits (foot) below. Similarly, the rear pastern is the metatarsus or the region between the hock joint and the foot below.
Roach back
A roach back is one that is arched to some extent, in opposition to the straight back required by the standard. (see figure 5 in the Table of Figures)
Root of the muzzle
That portion of the muzzle where it appears to attach to the skull.
Rump
The contour of the combined muscle groups covering the upper surface of the pelvis, starting at the end of the loins and blending into the buttocks area behind.
Scapula
The shoulder blade. (see figure 4 in the Table of Figures)
Schwamm
A German word that refers to the black fleshy part of the nose.
Scissors bite
An arrangement of the teeth and mouth in which the forward surfaces of the lower incisor teeth engage the back surface of the upper incisor teeth when the mouth is closed.
Slab-sided
This chest fails to have the proper spring at the top and is too narrow in cross section. This chest fails to provide adequate interior room for heart and lungs.
Slipped mask
A facial marking in which the island of dark color on the face is present but fails to completely surround one eye, or both eyes.
Slope from the skull to the muzzle
This is not to be confused with the silhouette of the apparent stop seen in profile. The subject here is the true stop which is the surface of the skull between the two prominent ridges above and in front of the eyes—that is, the floor of the furrow between the eyes.
Splash-coated
Body markings that seem to be random islands of the darker color distributed over a white background. Often such dogs appear to be basically white dogs with patches of color.
Stockhaarig
A German word meaning shorthaired.
Supra-orbital ridge
The bony protuberance above the eye; the zygomatic process of the frontal bone of the skull.
Swayback
A back that sags or is concave to some degree along its length. The actual extent of the sag may vary in depth or position and may be evident only when the dog is in motion. (see figure 6 in Table of Figures)
Tender
Not hard, stiff or erect, rather having properties of pliability and softness. (A term referring to the qualities of the ear flap.)
Toeing out
Sometimes called east-west front. Incorrectly positioned pasterns that cause the feet to turn outwards, away from the center line. Usually associated with a narrow front. (see figure 2 in Table of Figures)
Torn mantle
A pattern of body markings which is the mantle type of markings that has additional white patches as if the mantle had tears in it that exposed the white coat underneath.
Undershot bite
An arrangement of the teeth and mouth in which the lower incisor teeth are positioned forward and ahead of the upper incisor teeth when the mouth is closed. This is usually thought of as a lower jaw that grew too long.
Up-standing
Having adequate leg length to comply with the proportionately tall requirement of the standard without standing over too much ground.
White face
A facial marking in which the islands of dark color around the eyes are missing altogether.
Withers
The high point of the shoulder area above which the dog’s height is measured. However, this term is rather inexact and has different meanings depending on the context. Technically, the withers are the first through the ninth thoracic vertebrae, with the tips of the spines on the first and second thoracic vertebrae being the highest point on the dog’s body. Normally, the top points of the two shoulder blades are almost at the same position and are about at the same height; thus many dog fanciers consider the top point of the shoulders to be the withers. The American Kennel Club has indicated that any dog’s height shall be measured at the withers, which they define as that point on the topline of the dog which is in line with the top point of the should blades. Since the shoulder blades are not attached to the rest of the dog’s skeleton and depend on muscles and tendons for their location, the point above the tip of the shoulder blade can range from half way up the dog’s neck to some point along the dog’s back that is significantly lower than the tips of the first and second thoracic vertebrae.
Wry mouth
A type of mouth in which the lower jaw is twisted to one side, placing the upper and lower jaws out of alignment with each other.

Sources for this glossary;
Canine Terminology, by Harold Spira, 1982
Miller’s Anatomy of the Dog, by H .E. Evans PhD and G. C. Christensen DVM PhD 1979
Structure and Terminology, by E. M. Gilbert and Thelma R. Brown, 1995
Webster’s New Universal Unabridged Dictionary, Random House Publishers, 1994